Block Occupancy Detection for DC and DCC, Part 4

Through the first three parts of this series (links to part 1, part 2 and part 3) I’ve experimented with and refined to a degree the use of ACS712 current sensors for block occupancy detection. The system works well in DC mode, lighting up whenever a running DC train enters or is powered up in a block; program logic “remembers” block states when power is off for control reasons. My DC locos typically start drawing 30 – 50  mA when the lamps come on.

In DCC mode, ultra low current detection becomes an issue and the off-the-shelf ACS712 sensors don’t meet every need. My BLI DCC/Sound Locomotive draws enough power to be detected with the current system in idle mode, all sound and lights off. However, some standard DCC decoders draw so little current in idle mode that they are not consistently detectable. Further, constant track power in DCC invites us to find a way to sense any object drawing some minimal increment of current — such as 1.1 mA for a 10KΩ resistor wheelset on an 11 volt (in N scale) feed. There are a number of obstacles to achieving 1 mA  sensitivity with ACS712 sensors.

The Challenges

First, there is a question of how low a current the ACS712 can resolve. Theoretically, because the chip responds in a ratiometric way to current input, any amount of current will provoke a proportional output response. In reality, the output of the chip is a little noisy, and the noise masks the low current response.

Allegro MicroSystems says that the best resolution with the optimum filter capacitor is 20 mA. There is some general agreement among internet cognoscenti that with some amplification of the signal from the ACS712, greater sensitivity should be possible.

Second, the 10 bit ADC built into most Arduino boards has a maximum resolution of 4.88 mV (5 volts / 1024 steps), limiting the minimum detectable current to 26 mA (4.88 mV resolution / 185 mV/A sensitivity). Even the 12 bit ADC found in the Due and Zero boards is not quite close enough, with a maximum resolution of 1.22 mV (5 volts / 4096 steps), resulting in minimum detectable current of 6.6 mA.

A Better Analog-to-Digital Converter

Of the two problems, this is by far the easier problem to solve by using an external ADC with a 14 or 16 bit resolution. A 14 bit ADC has a maximum resolution of .305 mV, which is a good resolution for consistently detecting current at the 1.6 mA level or higher; a 16 bit ADC would provide 76 µV resolution and current detection in the mid to high µA range.  For those wanting to detect a single resistor wheelset, 16-bit is the way to go.

For my purposes and goals, I’m going to see how it goes with 14 bits so I’m not pushing resolution past the point of usefulness at this stage. My thinking is that 1.6 mA should be sufficient to detect a pair of resistor wheels. Two 10kΩ resistors in parallel have a resulting resistance of 5kΩ, which at 11 volts will draw 2.2 mA (@16 volts, 3.2 mA). Assuming I can overcome the noise problem to the point where 14 bits of resolution provides accurate current detection, the final step would be to go to 16 bits.

I looked at several ADC products and settled on the Mayhew Labs Extended ADC Shield, which is also available at Amazon. I chose this for several reasons: it supports 8 inputs, comes in a shield format and (perhaps most importantly) offers enough bandwidth to be able to sample multiple sensors at a reasonable rate.

Mayhew provides a code library for reading a variety of sensor types through the shield. It is fairly straight forward to use, and the shield is a very good quality piece of gear. I have found other ADC boards, but none with the unique capabilities of this one.

Mayhew Labs Extended ADC Shield

Sparkfun Low Current Sensor

Sparkfun sells a breakout board as a low current sensor using the ACS712 sensor chip plus an operational amplifier to amplify the signal. This is the only commercial solution of its type I’m aware of, so I bought one to check out and test. The schematic for the board can be seen here.

SparkFun Low Current Sensor Breakout – ACS712. This image is from an older version; different trimpots are used in the current version.

Although the circuit is promising, this board is really an experimental item and not suitable for production use on a model railroad. Part of the problem is that it does not provide — and is not drilled for — standard screw terminals for attaching the input current source, adding additional challenges to deployment. On the input side (I+ / I-) it is drilled for a pair of header pins and two larger holes with contact pads. The control side (VCC, OUT, GND) is drilled for standard headers.

Secondly, because this is an experimental board, it has two trim-pots for configuring the Op-amp.  Sounds great, but in practice this setup doesn’t work well. Add sketchy instructions for setting and using the board and I think most will find this board impractical for large scale use, though an interesting experimental tool.

Learning By Failing

So when the board arrived, I soldered on some header pins and hooked up the sensor to an UNO with the Mayhew ADC Shield, then attempted to configure and use the board. Here are the setup instructions in their entirety:

“To calibrate, first set the output offset to the desired level (with zero current on the sense lines, read output with a DVM). Then with a known current input (a 100mA limited supply works well for this), set the output deflection with the gain pot. Sensitivity is then calculated as (Vref – Vdeflect)/(current input).”

The “output offset” is (presumably, though not literally stated) adjusted with the vref trim-pot.  But what “level” is “desirable” for this application?  The second instruction is even weirder, since you are not going to short out a power supply by directly attaching it to the sensor without a load, and its the load that determines the current flow. I’m sure they meant to say something like “supply a load with a known current draw.”

I tinkered fruitlessly with the trim-pots for hours, testing various theories about how it should work and getting nothing intelligible out of the sensor. The gain pot is straightforward enough, resulting obvious changes to readings as the trim-pot is adjusted. Its the vref adjustment that mystified me and seemed to have no logic. I  did notice that when setting it there was a point where the output would suddenly, but only briefly, drop to O. That zero point is so finely specific that it is essentially impossible to set the trim-pot at that level; it always ends up off one way or another. That was a clue, but I did not yet understand.

Back to School

I found a nice tutorial about Op-amp circuits and, after a while started to understand the circuit and comprehend the problem. If you don’t understand Op-amps (who does among those of us not trained in electrical engineering?), check out the tutorial before reading further here.

The Op-amp circuit Sparkfun uses is a “voltage subtractor,” the intent of which is to  subtract the input voltage from the reference voltage and amplify the difference. This is the right choice—I think—but the implementation is wrong, at least for my purposes.

Unique ACS712 Properties

Many sensors that one might use with an Arduino are straight forward linear output devices where the output voltage ranges from 0 to 5volts in proportion to an input (light, temperature, etc.).

What makes the ACS712 different is that it senses both polarity and current of the measured input.  The “quiescent voltage” we measure when calibrating a sensor is the sensor’s “zero” point: ideally VCC/2 — midway between 0 and VCC (nominally 5 volts).  When the polarity is one way the measured current is represented by a value above VCC/2; when the polarity is the opposite, the sensor produces a value under VCC/2.

That means that we are only interested in the offset between the sensor output and its quiescent value. The software calibration routine I’ve been using seeks to get the most accurate average mid-point value possible to enhance the accuracy of the offset measurement. Amplifying that offset should be the route to gaining sensitivity.

Shouldn’t vRef be VCC / 2?

It may well be that the vref adjustment has value when measuring DC current with a fixed polarity. However, I’ve seen no math or theory in support of that proposition. For measuring DCC current, which is an 8kHz alternating polarity wave form, there is only one correct reference voltage for comparison to the ACS712 output: VCC/2.  So, Sparkfun had the right idea using a trim-pot as a voltage divider circuit to generate the reference voltage, but the trim-pot inhibits setting vref to VCC/2 because it is too imprecise to set the two resistor legs to exactly the same value.

What Now?

The Sparkfun sensor experiment was a bust in that it did not produce a usable result.  But it did help me research and think about what it is I need an operational amplifier to do in order to successfully amplify the ACS712 signal. Sometimes we learn more from failure than we do from success.

The next step is the set up an Op-amp with a fixed reference voltage of VCC/2, then continue experimenting from there.  I have the parts. In a few weeks, if time permits (between work and our ailing Beagle, time is tight right now), I should have some sort of result.

Block Occupancy Detection for DC and DCC, Part 1

Block occupancy detection is central to advanced layout control. Without it systems like control panels, signals or animation that depend on knowing the position of your trains can’t function. If my concept of building a layout around a network of Arduino boards and off-the-shelf peripherals is going to work, it has to be able to do block occupancy detection.

A Control Panel made with JMRI

A Control Panel made with JMRI PanelPro

As it turns out, block occupancy detection is possible and economical (in terms of equipment cost) with an Arduino and some sensors. In this post I’ll talk about and demonstrate what I’ve learned so far about the electronics of block occupancy detection.


Block occupancy detection can be accomplished a number of ways. The simplest methods involve installing trigger points that detect a passing train using optical or magnetic sensors. These methods generally only work with moving trains, and can’t detect stationary objects located on the tracks between trigger points.

Detecting Current Flow

Enter current sensing, the block detection method most closely tied to the electronic function of the layout. The idea behind sensing current for block occupancy detection is simple enough: current should only flow across the rails in a block that has a locomotive or other device (such as rolling stock with lights or a sound car decoder) on it.  If current flows, the block is occupied; if not, it is (or should be) clear.

How Current is Sensed

Digitrax BDL168 Detection Unit

Digitrax BDL168 Detection Unit

 

Current sensing is generally done indirectly, to avoid drawing on the current (more of a problem in high voltage applications than for a model railroader) and to enable sensors to operate at a different voltage/current from that being sensed. Early commercial block detection systems used  induction coils to sense current passing through wires wrapped around the coil. Newer systems tend to be hybrid or solid-state, reducing size and power consumption. The majority are optimized for DCC and few systems claim to work in DC.

RRCirKits Detection Coils

RRCirKits Detection Coils

To put it another way, there is no block occupancy sensor device on the market with a generic analog or digital output that could be directly read by a general purpose computing device, such as an Arduino. For that matter, I could not identify a single BO system that could easily interconnect with a system from another manufacturer. There aren’t any real standards in this area.

Current Sensing, the Arduino Way

The Allegro ACS712 chip is a leading solid state current sensing solution for power feeds up to 30 amps.  Its works using a phenomena called the “hall effect” to indirectly detect current flow through a silicon chip. The output of the ACS712 connects to an analog port on an Arduino board (or any other microcontroller/microcomputer that supports analog sensing). Connected to an Arduino, a call to analogRead() gives you the output of the sensor.

ACS712 Board

ACS712 Sensor Board

As is usually the case, the chip requires a few external components to function properly; primarily connectors and a filter capacitor/resistor combination to fine tune the sensitivity of the device.  As it happens there is a robust market for simple ACS712 sensing boards, resulting in prices under $2 per sensor if you buy directly from a Chinese source on Ebay, or Alibaba. Even on Amazon.com, sensors can be purchased for about $7 each with Prime 2-day shipping, which makes them slightly cheaper per block than sensors for the most cost-effective systems specifically marketed for DCC.

The only issue I’ve seen with these open market sensors is that there is no specific standard for the filter capacitor. Accordingly, different batches of these boards may have a slightly different sensitivity which would have to be accounted for in the software. As you’ll see, that is not nearly as big a deal as it sounds.

For now I think the optimal strategy for anyone trying to install a block detection system with these components, is to buy all the ones you will need (plus a few extra) in a single batch from a single source. At $2 a pop from China, it makes sense to buy in bulk. In my experience that will guarantee they are all tuned the same way.

DC and DCC Ready

It’s more important for model railroaders that the sensor functions equally well with alternating and direct current. The only difference in the way the sensors work as a system in DC versus DCC comes from the fact that in DC track power is used to control trains; an occupied block may have no power at all for control reasons. That could throw a block occupancy detection system off.

Any current sensing system for DC has to account this; as should any DCC friendly system that wants to preserve block occupancy information between track power outages (such as caused by a short circuit on the track).  We’ll get to solving that problem in the next post.

Plug and Read . . . Not!

I should tell you that if you plug in a sensor and try to determine current state with a single reading…. well, you’re going to be disappointed.  Individual readings seem to jump around a lot although you can discern trends in either direction.

Alternating current presents the additional problem of sensing a current flow that reverses polarity; at any given moment the power could be anywhere in its cycle, including 0 volts at polarity transition. For AC, multiple samples taken at a frequency that is greater than the frequency of the power cycle is required. Something like 8 – 12 samples per cycle will allow proper detection of AC current. Multi-sampling helps with DC too.

First, Calibration

Different sensor chips will produce slightly different analog readings under the same conditions. Any differences in filter capacitors between boards will also produce different readings, as will any +/- variation from 5 volts supplied as Vcc to the chip. To deal with these differences and actual power conditions, we have to calibrate each sensor on startup.

What we need to know is the output of each sensor when there is no current flow (no load); we’ll call this condition adc-zero. The difference between sensor output and adc-zero represents the current sensed by the device.

Getting an accurate number for adc-zero requires averaging a large number of quick readings — 5000 seems to be optimal — like this (we call adc-zero the “quiescent voltage” output):

long VQ = 0;
//read 5000 samples to stabilize value
for (int i=0; i<5000; i++) {
   VQ += analogRead(PIN);
   delay(1);
 }
 VQ /= 5000;
 return int(VQ);

With that number calculated for each sensor, we can get  consistent readings across multiple sensors.

Sampling Current

Reading current consistently requires a multi-sample approach over a defined time span. For this demonstration we’ll accumulate 250 samples taken over a 100 ms span on each read cycle.

Alternating current drives you to calculate the Root Mean Square of the data to filter polarity shifts and get a very stable mean current value you can work with.  Not only does this work well with A/C, it also is equally helpful in getting stable readings of DC current because the output of the sensor varies over time [for the hardcore math and theory, see the Wikipedia page].

Its an easy formula to translate into a computer algorithm, using a function like this :

float readCurrent(int PIN, float adc_zero)
{
  float currentAcc = 0;
  unsigned int count = 0;
  unsigned long prevMicros = micros() - sampleInterval ;
  while (count < numSamples)
  {
    if (micros() - prevMicros >= sampleInterval)
    {
      float adc_raw = analogRead(PIN) - adc_zero; // Electical offset voltage
      adc_raw /= SENSITIVITY; // convert to amperes
      // accumulate sum of the squares of converted raw data
      currentAcc += (adc_raw * adc_raw); 
      ++count;
      prevMicros += sampleInterval;
    }
  }
  // calculate the root mean square of the data set
  float rms = sqrt((float)currentAcc / (float)numSamples);
  return rms;
}

Finally, we have to use the rms values to determine whether or not a block is occupied. For the purposes of this demonstration, I’m using a hard rms threshold of .0259 (the adc-zero rms is about .021 on the sensor used for the demonstration); I’ll adopt a different approach when I scale up to a multi-block arrangement.

To further smooth the sketch response, it averages each reading with the previous one. Here is the key code that determines if a block is occupied:

  prev_current = current; // save last reading
  current = readCurrent(currentPin, adc_zero);
  avg_current = (current + prev_current)/2;
  occupied = avg_current > occupancy_threshold;

So lets put the whole journey to this point together in a video demonstration. This demonstrates current sensing in a DC context:

Here’s the sketch in its entirety:

// Advanced Sensing with ASC712
// Using Calibration to find sensor 0
// then sensing by compiling multiple readings to obtain an RMS (Root Mean Square).
// Derived from these forum posts: https://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=179541.0
// NOTE: Forum posters did not account for device sensitivity
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
const int currentPin = 0;
// Sampling Parameters
const unsigned long sampleTime = 100000UL; // sample over 100ms
const unsigned long numSamples = 250UL; // the number of samples divides sampleTime exactly, 
                                        // but low enough for the ADC to keep up
const unsigned long sampleInterval = sampleTime/numSamples;  // the sampling interval
                                         //  must be longer than then ADC conversion time
#define SENSITIVITY 185  // from ACS712 data sheet for 5A version, in mV/A
int adc_zero;  // variable to hold calibrated sensor quiescent voltage

boolean occupied = false;
float occupancy_threshold = .0259;

float current = 0;
float prev_current;
void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Serial.println("\nACS712 Current Sensing Basic Demonstration\nMultiple Readings converted to RMS at 1 second intervals\nValues for quiescent output are determined by Calibration.\n\nCalibrating the sensor:\n");
  adc_zero = determineVQ(currentPin); //Quiescent output voltage - the average voltage ACS712 shows with no load (0 A)
  delay(1000);
}

void loop(){
  float avg_current;
  prev_current = current;
  current = readCurrent(currentPin, adc_zero);
  avg_current = (current + prev_current)/2;
  occupied = avg_current > occupancy_threshold;
  
  Serial.print("Current Sensed:");
  Serial.print(current * 1000 ,1);
  Serial.print(" mA\t\t");
  Serial.print("The block is ");
  if(occupied){
    Serial.println("occupied");
  } else {
    Serial.println("not occupied");
  }
  
  delay(1000);
}

int determineVQ(int PIN) {
  Serial.print("estimating avg. quiscent voltage:");
  long VQ = 0;
  //read 5000 samples to stabilize value
  for (int i=0; i<5000; i++) {
    VQ += analogRead(PIN);
    delay(1);//depends on sampling (on filter capacitor), can be 1/80000 (80kHz) max.
  }
  VQ /= 5000;
  Serial.print(map(VQ, 0, 1023, 0, 5000));
  Serial.println(" mV");
  return int(VQ);
}
float readCurrent(int PIN, float adc_zero)
{
  float currentAcc = 0;
  unsigned int count = 0;
  unsigned long prevMicros = micros() - sampleInterval ;
  while (count < numSamples)
  {
    if (micros() - prevMicros >= sampleInterval)
    {
      float adc_raw = analogRead(PIN) - adc_zero; // Electical offset voltage
      adc_raw /= SENSITIVITY; // convert to amperes
      currentAcc += (adc_raw * adc_raw);
      ++count;
      prevMicros += sampleInterval;
    }
  }
  //https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_mean_square
  float rms = sqrt((float)currentAcc / (float)numSamples);
  return rms;
}

Next installment, we go to the next level: multiple blocks and adding signals to the mix. And I’ll demonstrate everything in both DC and DCC.


 

Chasing Electronic Gremlins

I built the test loop for a couple of reasons. First I needed to revive my long unused track laying skills. Second, I needed a place to test and repair locos and rolling stock. Third, and perhaps most importantly, I needed to learn how to deploy Arduinos on a layout in a bullet-proof sort of way, before investing time and money building the main layout.

If you’ve been following along, you know that lighting is one of my big challenges in building the layout in the chosen location. The soffits above the bar are a thin skin of paneling, with little structure supporting it, hiding HVAC duct-work. Standard light fixtures are not possible here.

Addressable RGB LED Strip

Addressable RGB LED Strip

That constraint started a search for a lighting solution that was light enough to affix to the paneling with 3M Command Strips, but would produce enough light to effectively light the layout. When I found strip ALEDS, I knew I’d found a solution. The first two light bars I made are demonstrated here (a simple light show accompanied by a little Debussy):

The bars are easy to create.  Mine are sized at 26″ long; the right size to both light from above and install on the underside of the top level of the layout to light the lower level.

To make them I split 1/2″ PVC pipe on a table saw, then cut the pipe halves to length [TIP: PVC pipe from your home store is dirty stuff. I clean the cut halves with denatured alcohol before final assembly]. I attach 1/2″ reflective Mylar tape to each inside half of the pipe (creating a reflector), leaving a strip of bare PVC down the center of the pipe.  A bead of Liquid Nails for Projects down the middle holds a prepared (with JST 3 wire connectors at each end) 38 LED strip.

My standard RGB LED light bar.

My standard RGB LED light bar.

The demo above shows two bars chained together. You can keep lengthening the array by adding additional bars, at least until you reach the limits of your power supply.

Not So Fast

I have to admit that when I made and tested 4 bars together (152 LEDS), I was  disappointed with the amount of light I was getting. It was good, but just not quite enough.  Two more bars (228 LEDS) ought to do it I thought.

What I got when I expanded the array to 6 bars was a very obvious light intensity drop off (and resulting color change, since these are RGB LEDS) from the beginning to end of the array. Nowhere in the information I’ve assembled about ALEDS has there been any mention of this problem.  I got out the multi-meter and, sure enough, the supply voltage drops steadily as you progress along the strip; and the greater the total number of ALEDS chained together, the more pronounced the effect throughout the strip.

Well, I’m a model railroader and I know all about resistance and current drop off; this is our classic problem of current loss over long runs. The solution? A 16Ga supply bus that injects current every two bars.

Light Controller and Bus Bar

Light Controller and Bus Bar

Head end of the lighting bus bar.

Head end of the lighting bus bar.

A strip of plywood provides the mounting surface for the required capacitor near the first LED, the bus wire (I CA’ d it to the wood) and circuit board fragments with with PCB screw terminals.

The test loop under lights.

The test loop under lights.

Problem solved.

Booting a Loaded Arduino

The basic reliability of the Atmel platform used by Arduino boards is impressive. So when I started seeing boot problems, I was puzzled.  In all cases, the problem occurred on initial power up; rebooting the affected board by hitting the reset button solved the problem.

This was not a good development.

My first three loaded up Arduinos are installed on the Test loop, Lighting Control and the Control Panel.  All three have an Ethernet Shield and are attached to additional devices. All three evidenced cold boot problems in one form or another.

It had to be a power problem.  The additional load from the Ethernet Shield and other devices (although, in most cases I supply power to attached devices separately so they don’t draw from the Arduino’s limited current handling capacity) had to be the issue. One of the confusing things about UNOs is that you can power them from USB at 5 volts DC, or from a separate DC power supply at 7 – 12 volts.

Umm, how much power should I be supplying?

Enercell Power Supply

Enercell Power Supply

In the context of the control panel, where an UNO has an Ethernet shield with multiple digital and analog connections to the touchscreen, I found that I need to supply 12 volts.  At that level the rig is 100% reliable, something I easily established with the help of an adjustable power supply. The trade-off with the control panel, because everything is enclosed, is heat buildup, requiring a fan I didn’t originally plan for.

New deployment rule: the standard power supply for Arduino boards with built-in voltage regulators (primarily UNOs and MEGAs on this project) will be 12 volts DC. Connected devices will run at the standard logic 5 volt level. Smaller Arduino boards without a voltage regulator will get 5 or 3.3 volts DC as required.

Modified Computer Power Supply

Modified Computer Power Supply

I use converted computer power supplies with simultaneous outputs at 3.3, 5 and 12 volts DC, so my layout bus has all three feeds.

It may not seem like it, but that is progress.

Powering Up In Order

Unlike the control panel, the lighting controller did not settle down with a 12 volt supply. There, the Ethernet Shield would go into an initialization loop (attempting to start up and failing, over and over) on power up — but would work fine after a hard reset.

On the test loop, the problem was even subtler: upon cold power up everything appeared normal and the sketch would start to execute…. then freeze at the point where it is supposed to send a broadcast message across the network.

It had to be something about power again that manifests only on a cold start, but what? Faulty Ethernet shields?

Here the clue was a little warning from Adafruit about neopixels (ALED strips): always make sure the power supply to the strip is on before the data connection from the Arduino goes live, or the strip could be damaged.

I always figured that if the Arduino and the ALEDS (and other peripheral sensors and actuators) were powered from the same source and came on simultaneously, Adafruit’s warning would be satisfied.  Since I’ve never had damage to the strip, and I’ve been working with the same strip for some months now, I think technically I was right.  However, it seems that from the Arduino side, simultaneous start up is not necessarily so blessed, especially when attached to an Ethernet shield.

I conducted a simple experiment on the lighting controller:  I unplugged the power from the board/shield combo then powered up the ALEDS before plugging the power into the board.

BAM. Worked perfectly every single time. No confused Ethernet shield; perfect response to commands; no hitting the reset button.

Of course, manually plugging a fleet of embedded Arduino boards was not going to do at all.

Automating Power On Delay

Consulting the Internet Machine, I found a simple power-on delay circuit.  In my first attempt I built it as shown, except for substituting a variable resistor for R2 (on original schematic) to allow some adjustment of the delay.  For the relay, I chose a low power signal type — adequate for the power draw of the Arduino/Shield, but possibly not sufficiently durable for this application. Only long term experience will tell.

Anyway, as built it provides about a 50 – 100 millisecond delay in powering on the board. That turns out to be enough.  With the delay circuit attached, the lighting controller powers up perfectly every time.

I modified the circuit slightly for my second build, including both input and output indication LED’s [ green for input power on, and blue for output power on. ] and increased the size of the capacitor to 100µf. The bigger capacitor gives a little more time range to the delay (as adjusted by R4; if you go out of range either direction on R4, the circuit will not work.) from about 1/10th to 1/2 second. The I/O LEDs really help see the timing of the delay.

Here’s schematic of the board as I’m building it now:

Power-On Delay Circuit Schematic

Power-On Delay Circuit Schematic

Built on one quadrant from an SB4 Snappable Breadboard (these are my go-to, two sided solderable breadboards), the top looks like this:

 

Power-on Delay Circuit Top

Power-on Delay Circuit Top

And, the bottom:

Power-on Delay Circuit Bottom

Power-on Delay Circuit Bottom

Installed on the test loop and in operation:

Uno, Ethernet Shield and Power-on- Delay board.

Uno, Ethernet Shield and Power-on- Delay board, mounted under the Test Loop.

From here on, power on delays circuits are another standard component for reliable operation, though I think I’m going to double the size of the resistor on the blue led to tamp down its brightness more!.


 

A Programmable Layout Controller

Programming an Arduino to run turnouts, lights or animation on the layout is only part of the challenge. The other part is how do you control the board and tell it what you want it to do?

Servo Control with LED Feedback

Servo Control with LED Feedback

From an Arduino point of view, any sensor attached to a pin can trigger action in a sketch. As shown in Turnout Control with Arduino & Servos, mechanical buttons and switches can be attached to pins to tell the board what to do. In the example circuit, a single button triggers servo action. If you want to include feedback indicators as in this example circuit — these could be layout signals or panel indicators — you can hard-wire everything together to the same Arduino board.

Until you run out of pins

Pin management is critical as you ask the Arduino to do more and more. Every new sensor or triggering device consumes pins (as does every new actuator or output device). While learning what I could do with an Arduino on the layout, I realized that I needed get beyond the hardwired controls used in experiments and demos to a generic, software-based control system. To do that I was going to have to network everything together.

Networking Arduinos

Uno with Ethernet Shield

Uno with Ethernet Shield

In Roundhouse Rebuild Part 2 I mentioned, without explanation, that I was using Ethernet, and went on to discuss the evolving Simple Network Command System. I decided to go with wired Ethernet because of the easy availability of inexpensive Ethernet shields based on the WIZnet W5100 Ethernet Controller chip (under 10 dollars per shield), and an easy to use Arduino library included in the IDE. It is as close to plug & play as networking gets on an Arduino. The only additional equipment required are one or more inexpensive 10/100 switches (for example: TP-LINK TL-SF1005D 5-port 10/100Mbps Desktop Switch; don’t get gigabit switches to work with these shields, you’re just asking for trouble) to  interconnect the devices. I use a per-device assigned address system which helps keep the equipment roster simple (no router or DHCP required).

Why not just use the Digital Command Control system for the Arduino net? The short answer is that while it is clearly doable, for the purposes of this project I am going to keep the Arduino net separate because:

  1. Everything I do here has to work for both DC and DCC layouts. I own both DCC and unconverted DC locomotives; the layout has to work the same in either mode.
  2. Compared to conventional networking, DCC is a relatively difficult way to conduct bidirectional communications between Arduino boards.
  3. Keeping them separate does not preclude enabling communication between the two systems down the road.

If you want to pursue DCC communication and Arduino, the Model Railroading with Arduino site is a great place to start. The biggest impediment for most modelers will be the lack of commercial interface hardware to connect an Arduino to either track power or the command bus (although the circuits are easy enough to build); the closest commercial solution would be to use a USB interface, like the Digitrax PR3XTRA USB Programmer, RR-CirKits LocoBuffer-USB or the SPROG II USB, to tap into the DCC command system just as you would with JMRI.

My ultimate goal is to build the layout’s electronic and mechanical foundation around a network of Arduino boards. For communication among Arduino boards, Ethernet makes the most sense right now because it is the most “frictionless” route to achieve my goals (a wireless form would be even better, but would be a little more difficult to implement, so I’m holding that option for the future); communication between the Arduino net and the DCC system is a topic for the future—and the possibilities go way beyond treating Arduinos as decoders.

Building The Controller

2050-04

Adafruit 3.5″ TFT screen displaying a bitmap.

The concept for a prototype controller was simple enough: start with an Uno, add an Ethernet shield and add a small touchscreen for display and user input. Put it all in a box with an Ethernet jack, a USB jack and power connector. Software generates screen displays, interprets touches and communicates with devices it is controlling.

For the screen I chose the Adafruit 3.5″ TFT Touchscreen, seen here attached to an Uno via a breadboard (NB: The wiring shown is the minimum required to run the screen; the touch overlay and the SD Card reader require additional connections). It is capable of full 16bit color with a resolution of 320 x 480 pixels. The Adafruit library provides basic graphic primitive functions, basic text functions and bitmap functions allowing image display. It has a resistive touch overlay. Adafruit has an excellent tutorial on using this screen with their library.

Back of 3.8" TFT Screen

Back of 3.5″ TFT Touchscreen

The screen comes with a choice of interfaces: you can use the SPI bus interface in order to use the fewest pins on your Arduino, or you can devote more pins to use the faster 8 bit interface. You select the interface and solder the header pins on the appropriate side.  A  solder jumper on the back determines which interface is active; the decision is reversible. An SD Card reader is included for convenient storage of bitmap files.

On an Uno, the Ethernet shield dictates that the TFT screen has to be run via SPI; there aren’t enough pins otherwise. The application does not require the SD Card Reader so I don’t connect it to the UNO.

I fabricated a wiring harness for attaching the screen to the Uno\Ethernet combo, then mounted everything in a Radio Shack project box as shown below.

Wiring Harness

Wiring Harness

The connectors on the wiring harness are male or female PCB Headers; I solder the wires to the PCB side of the fittings, then cover each connection with heat shrink tubing. White wires connect to digital pins 7 through 13 (except 10, which is reserved for the Ethernet shield) and are for the TFT interface. Green wires are for the touch overlay and connect to Analog pins A2 – A5. Red supplies 5v, and black ground, to the TFT screen. The Ethernet extension cable and the USB extension cable both came from Adafruit.

Inside the Controller

Inside the Controller

Controller with Screen Wiring Attached

Controller with Screen Wiring Attached

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here it is in operation:

The Programmable Controller

The Programmable Controller

 

 

 

 

 

 

You may have guessed the fan ( on the left side ) was an afterthought. The cheap Ethernet shields I use are heat sensitive; they will crash when put in a confined space with poor air circulation.  Out in the open no problem; in a box, its a problem. Found that out the hard way. So I added a little fan to pull the air through the box (if you look closely, you’ll see there are holes around the bottom); works fine if noisily. Obviously, I will plan for air circulation when I build the main layout control panel. Such is prototyping!

What it Does

The controller sketch displays menus with buttons that, when touched, will cause the controller to either go to a different menu or send a command packet to the target device. Command packets are strings, formatted thus: function / option / data. For more about my protocol and the network polling process, see the Simple Network Command System section near the end of Roundhouse Rebuild Part 2.

The Main Menu provides access to sub-menus that I’ve created to support parts of the project.

Controller Main Menu

Controller Main Menu

All menus are built with buttons. A structure type called button_t holds button data:

typedef struct {
  int x;
  int y;
  int txtX;
  int txt;
} button_t;

X and y are the coordinates of the upper left corner of the button; the width and height are the same for all buttons in this version of the system. txtX is the x coordinate for the button text; the y coordinate is calculated and there is no text centering function. Finally, txt is an offset into a button_labels array pointing to the button text.

For the main menu, the button set definition looks like this:

const button_t buttons_main[SIZE_MAIN_SET] = {
  {90, 80, 115, 0 },
  {250, 80, 254, 1},
  {175, 140, 185, 16}};

Determining if a button has been touched is fairly straight forward. The coordinates of a touch p are compared to each button, as b, in the current set to see if it is on or within the button boundaries.

p.x >= b.x && p.x <= (b.x + BUTTON_WIDTH) && p.y >= b.y && p.y <= (b.y + BUTTON_HEIGHT)

Whacking My Head on the Memory Ceiling

The graphics libraries contain a lot of code. With the newest Arduino IDE, the controller sketch compiles to 27,030 bytes, about 83% of available program space; it was about 29k bytes with the previous IDE.

That is still tight enough that I cannot include SD Card access and a function to draw a bitmap from a file without going 15% over the absolute memory limit for an UNO. In the future I’ll use an Arduino MEGA 2560 Board instead of an UNO for control panel applications because of its vastly superior memory resources (and it has a lot more pins to work with). The remaining 17% with the current sketch gives me plenty of room for now.

The trickier bit of memory management is “dynamic memory,” which (on an UNO) is 2,048 bytes of shared memory space used for local variables. Local variables are created when functions are called and destroyed when they are exited. Global variables–variables declared outside of any function that are always in scope and available wherever you are in your sketch–are also stored in the same space. Global variables reduce the amount of dynamic memory available for local variables and, if not managed, can strangle your sketch.

Fortunately, the majority of global variables turn out to be constants — unchanging values or text used by the application. This kind of data can be stored in the program space instead of dynamic memory; the limitations are that

  • you can’t change the value stored in program space while the sketch is running, and
  • you have to copy a value from program space to dynamic memory in order to use it.

The PROGMEM keyword is used to tell the compiler to store something in program space instead of dynamic memory. To park menu titles and button text in program space, I did this:

const char mstr_0[] PROGMEM = "Main Menu";
const char mstr_1[] PROGMEM = "Lighting Menu";
const char mstr_2[] PROGMEM = "Roundhouse Menu";
const char mstr_3[] PROGMEM = "Test Loop Menu";

const char* const menus[] PROGMEM = {mstr_0, mstr_1, mstr_2, mstr_3};

const char str_0[] PROGMEM = "Lights";
const char str_1[] PROGMEM = "Roundhouse";
const char str_2[] PROGMEM = "<-Back";
const char str_3[] PROGMEM = "  Night";
const char str_4[] PROGMEM = "   Day";
const char str_5[] PROGMEM = " Mid-Day";
const char str_6[] PROGMEM = " Sunrise";
const char str_7[] PROGMEM = " Sunset";
const char str_8[] PROGMEM = "   Low";
const char str_9[] PROGMEM = "  High";
const char str_10[] PROGMEM = " Stall 1";
const char str_11[] PROGMEM = " Stall 2";
const char str_12[] PROGMEM = " Stall 3";
const char str_13[] PROGMEM = " Stall 4";
const char str_14[] PROGMEM = " Stall 5";
const char str_15[] PROGMEM = "Afternoon";
const char str_16[] PROGMEM = "Test Loop";
const char str_17[] PROGMEM = "Main";
const char str_18[] PROGMEM = "Siding";
const char str_19[] PROGMEM = "Occupancy";

const char* const button_labels[] PROGMEM = {str_0, str_1, str_2, str_3,
 str_4, str_5, str_6, str_7, str_8, str_9, str_10, str_11, str_12,
 str_13, str_14, str_15, str_16, str_17, str_18, str_19};

Copying the title of the main menu into a local variable text looks like this:

strcpy_P(text, (char*)pgm_read_word((&menus[0])));

For getting the button labels:

 strcpy_P(text, (char*)pgm_read_word((&button_labels[b.txt])));

An alternate way to store static data in program memory is to use the F macro, as in this declaration of a local variable that initializes with a static value that is stored in and retrieved from program memory:

String readyStr = F("Ready");

At this point I find it useful to make it a habit to use these tools in all sketches to tame dynamic memory space. Currently the controller sketch uses only 771 bytes or 37% of dynamic memory for global variables, leaving plenty of space for locals.

Menus

The Lighting and Roundhouse menus look like this:

lighting_menu

Lighting Menu

 

Roundhouse Menu

Roundhouse Menu

These are the controls I used off screen to control lighting when making the Roundhouse demo video. Overhead lighting was supplied by 4 led light bars (152 RGB ALEDS total) controlled by a networked UNO.


I’ve been busy at the test loop trying out various ideas.  Turnout control, signals and block occupancy detection (I have a method that works for both DC and DCC layouts), all play a part in the next step toward the layout. I’ll leave you to ponder the test loop menu until next time.

Test Loop Controls

Test Loop Controls